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Author Topic: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading  (Read 29993 times)

Robert Frederick

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General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« on: April 28, 2014, 02:25:51 PM »
Training Cycles

To ensure the growth of sports performance, it is necessary to continuously develop the functionality of the athlete’s body. This is achieved by systematically increasing load through careful planning.

In accordance with the objective of continuous improvement, load planning in powerlifting training should include the following aims:

- Improving overall physical development
- Further development of special physical qualities
- Further improvement of technical and tactical abilities

Sports’ training is constructed in the form of cycles of different duration. In 1964, L.P. Matveev illustrated the general structure of a long-term training process at the micro (small), meso (middle), macro (large) cycle(s) of training.

Microcycle
A microcycle is a series of workouts carried out over several days and which provides a complete solution to the task of a particular training stage. Typically, the microcycle duration is one week.

The number of training sessions in microcycle can range from 2 to 10-12 sessions. Several factors are taken into consideration in the construction of a microcycle. Fatigue management and the recovery process are of particular concern.

Mesocycle
A mesocycle on average lasts from two to six weeks and includes a number of relatively complete microcycles. The construction of the training process at the mesocycle level allows you to organize training in accordance with the main task of the period or phase of training, to ensure optimum dynamics between training and competitive pressures, and employs suitable combinations of various means and methods of training. (J.K. Colds, 2007)

Macrocycle
A macrocycle is an organized grouping of mesocycles associated with the development, stabilization and temporary loss of sporting form.  The macrocycle is thus divided into three periods: preparatory, competitive and transition. The duration of a macrocycle can range from 3-4 months to multi-year plans (e.g. 4 year Olympic cycles).

The preparatory period is aimed at developing the sporting form and creating a solid foundation of preparation (general and special) for the main event and various other aspects of preparedness. During this period there is an increase in strength, speed, flexibility, agility, and is in general versatile physical training. It is characterized by the highest volume of training load and a gradual increase in the intensity of competition exercises.

The increase in the volume of the load should go in waves, i.e. months of heavy load should alternate with months of reduced load. A gradual increase in the load is only suitable for beginners and low-level athletes. It is also suitable for qualified athletes after a long transition period, at the beginning of a new cycle.

This period can be divided into two stages: general physical preparation and special physical preparation.

The competitive period is characterized by a stabilization of sporting form and further improvement in various aspects of preparedness. This period also provides integrated training and is a direct preparation for the competition itself.

The main objective of the competition period is the implementation of high-level training. Work in this period is characterized by a low volume and high intensity. The number of lifts is reduced by 20-40% as compared to the preparatory period with the reduction depending on the athlete's weight. The heavier the athlete, the greater the reduction.

The transition period aims to restore physical and mental capacity after high level training and competitive pressures to prepare for the next macrocycle at a higher level. This period forms the bridge between sports training cycles. Boris notes that he has always been against long transition periods.

Yearly Planning

Suppose an athlete plans on entering five important competitions (at the end of months 3, 5, 6, 9 and 11) and three of which (at the end of months 3, 5 and 9) are for him, the most important.

Cycle         Months
1         1-3
2         4-6
3         7-9
4         10-11

Further suppose that the optimal numbers of lifts per month for this athlete during the preparatory and competition periods are 1,500 and 1,050, respectively. The yearly schedule may then look like the following:

Month      Lifts
1         1,350 (preparatory, after a training lay-off)
2         1,500 (preparatory)
3         1,050 (competition)
4         1,430 (preparatory, slight reduction)*
5         1,000 (competition)
6         860    (competition)
7         1,150 (preparatory)**
8         1,500 (preparatory)
9         1,050 (competition)
10         1,150 (preparatory)***
11         770    (competition)
12         640    (active rest, GPP)

Average Number of Lifts Per Month = 1,120

* Looking forward, two competition months at higher intensity
** Recuperation before loading and competition
*** Definite background of fatigue, reduced loading is appropriate


The month’s plan is distributed non-uniformly: weeks with a large load should be alternated with weeks with small and medium loads.

Large loading has the greatest affect on the trainee and it creates the conditions for the further increases in competition results. Moderate loading maintains the level of trainability. Small loads are employed for active restoration and contribute to super-compensation, thereby creating the highest level of functional possibility.  Variability is an essential component of maintaining sensitivity toward the training stimulus. Thus, only a sequence of loading and rest can contribute to a continuous increase in results.

Two-time Olympic champion in weightlifting, doctor of medical science Professor A. Vorobyov (1989) states that using any load with low intensity doesn't help him to achieve high results. High intensity in training is extremely important. It is an axiom.
« Last Edit: May 30, 2014, 03:35:44 PM by Robert Frederick »

Bench Polkov

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #1 on: June 10, 2014, 07:16:43 PM »
Is there a recommendation for how often a deloaded prep cycle or active rest cycle should performed?

Robert Frederick

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #2 on: June 11, 2014, 01:52:15 PM »
Is there a recommendation for how often a deloaded prep cycle or active rest cycle should performed?

When I originally wrote this I had transition periods of increasing length sprinkled throughout the year. Boris said he was against them so I deleted them and made a note. As it is you can see there are some periods with reduced loading in the one year example. He didn't object to those. Nothing specific though.

Boris Sheiko

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #3 on: June 12, 2014, 12:42:29 PM »
When your competition is finished you have to find out when your next competition will be. If there are more than 4 months left you can have a rest of 7-10 days. Take note that the rest should be active: swimming, team games, easy running, etc.

Weightlifting World Champion, doctor of science and professor Alexey Medvedev proved that resting more than 2 weeks in training has a negative impact on the training process. And after a month's break, even with an active rest, many athletes find getting back to previous form very difficult.

owik

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #4 on: June 12, 2014, 01:49:12 PM »
Very interesting topic. Are there any guidlines regarding the load (NL) for beginners/MS/CMS? I am thinking of yearly load, monthly load in prepartion and monthly load in competiton? Even a break down in week loads would be very interesting.

Bench Polkov

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #5 on: June 12, 2014, 02:00:50 PM »
When your competition is finished you have to find out when your next competition will be. If there are more than 4 months left you can have a rest of 7-10 days. Take note that the rest should be active: swimming, team games, easy running, etc.

Weightlifting World Champion, doctor of science and professor Alexey Medvedev proved that resting more than 2 weeks in training has a negative impact on the training process. And after a month's break, even with an active rest, many athletes find getting back to previous form very difficult.

Thanks Coach Sheiko. I definitely agree on the last part, I have had 4-5 week layoffs due to illness or other issues and put myself back months.

Blitzball

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #6 on: June 12, 2014, 03:27:54 PM »
When your competition is finished you have to find out when your next competition will be. If there are more than 4 months left you can have a rest of 7-10 days. Take note that the rest should be active: swimming, team games, easy running, etc.

Weightlifting World Champion, doctor of science and professor Alexey Medvedev proved that resting more than 2 weeks in training has a negative impact on the training process. And after a month's break, even with an active rest, many athletes find getting back to previous form very difficult.

Thanks Coach Sheiko. I definitely agree on the last part, I have had 4-5 week layoffs due to illness or other issues and put myself back months.

what is the logic behind this function of our body?

Robert Frederick

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #7 on: June 12, 2014, 03:38:33 PM »
what is the logic behind this function of our body?

I know right. On the other side of the coin though we remodel ourselves depending on the stimulus. If we weren't flexible like this we'd get nothing out of lifting weights.

Bench Polkov

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #8 on: June 12, 2014, 04:12:46 PM »
The longest undeloaded cycle I've ever run was 24 weeks for bench at last year's IPF Oceanias. My wrists felt like glass after that and I spent nearly a half hour a day rolling out knots in my pecs. Good times. Still set my comp pb and the Oceania record there though.

Blitzball

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #9 on: June 13, 2014, 12:40:05 AM »
what is the logic behind this function of our body?

I know right. On the other side of the coin though we remodel ourselves depending on the stimulus. If we weren't flexible like this we'd get nothing out of lifting weights.

i meant why do we need like 2-3 months to get back on track if we stop training for 1 month.why does our body take so long?i would expect with a pause of 2 months we would need like 1 month to regain full strength

Robert Frederick

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #10 on: June 13, 2014, 03:53:06 AM »
what is the logic behind this function of our body?

I know right. On the other side of the coin though we remodel ourselves depending on the stimulus. If we weren't flexible like this we'd get nothing out of lifting weights.

i meant why do we need like 2-3 months to get back on track if we stop training for 1 month.why does our body take so long?i would expect with a pause of 2 months we would need like 1 month to regain full strength

Don't know exactly. As a chemist though I can't help but to think in terms of equilibrium. It takes more and more work to gain less and less. Then when you stop you effortlessly lose your gains. That sounds like an equilibrium condition to me, just like charging up a battery. I do think the equilibrium point can be shifted though. If it were to take you one year to build a certain amount of strength and it took someone else one month to do the same from the same starting point, it has been shown that your strength would be more persistent upon discontinuing training than the other guy's. Why is that? It probably has to do with the type of adaptation that created the gains in the first place. Strength arising from increases of muscle cross-sectional area last longer than neural adaptations. Easy come, easy go.

Blitzball

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #11 on: June 13, 2014, 09:00:19 PM »
what is the logic behind this function of our body?

I know right. On the other side of the coin though we remodel ourselves depending on the stimulus. If we weren't flexible like this we'd get nothing out of lifting weights.

i meant why do we need like 2-3 months to get back on track if we stop training for 1 month.why does our body take so long?i would expect with a pause of 2 months we would need like 1 month to regain full strength

Don't know exactly. As a chemist though I can't help but to think in terms of equilibrium. It takes more and more work to gain less and less. Then when you stop you effortlessly lose your gains. That sounds like an equilibrium condition to me, just like charging up a battery. I do think the equilibrium point can be shifted though. If it were to take you one year to build a certain amount of strength and it took someone else one month to do the same from the same starting point, it has been shown that your strength would be more persistent upon discontinuing training than the other guy's. Why is that? It probably has to do with the type of adaptation that created the gains in the first place. Strength arising from increases of muscle cross-sectional area last longer than neural adaptations. Easy come, easy go.

pretty much nature works that way.very nice response

owik

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #12 on: June 15, 2014, 03:15:00 PM »
Very interesting topic.
Are there any guidlines regarding the load number of lifts (NL) for beginners/MS/CMS?

I am thinking of yearly load, monthly load in prepartion and monthly load in competiton? Even a break down in week loads would be very interesting.

Any thoughts about this query Mr Sheiko?

Bench Polkov

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #13 on: June 16, 2014, 03:40:07 AM »
Very interesting topic.
Are there any guidlines regarding the load number of lifts (NL) for beginners/MS/CMS?

I am thinking of yearly load, monthly load in prepartion and monthly load in competiton? Even a break down in week loads would be very interesting.

Any thoughts about this query Mr Sheiko?

I think this might be from the old Sheiko book...

Quote
The first stage is the powerlifer's accommodation to the growing
volume and intensity of the loading. A yearly rise in both with
contribute to the powerlifter's improvement and last an average of 6
years. The second stage is defined by a *relatively* stable yearly
volume but a yearly increase in intensity. A direct correlation exists
between intensity and one's total but while such a correlation between
volume and total is not supported."

The recommendations for
volume are as follows. Novices = 700, class 3 = 900, class 2-1 = 1K,
CMS = 1.1k, MS = 1.25k, MSIC = 1.7k. This is total number of reps done
with the bar over 49%

BuccioniPL

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Re: General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« Reply #14 on: June 16, 2014, 11:21:43 AM »


Quote
........
The recommendations for
volume are as follows. Novices = 700, class 3 = 900, class 2-1 = 1K,
CMS = 1.1k, MS = 1.25k, MSIC = 1.7k. This is total number of reps done
with the bar over 49%
[/quote]

Total number of reps done per months I guess?
"Hard in the training, easy in the battle"