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Topics - Robert Frederick

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16
Universal Topics / General Training Overview - Weekly Loading
« on: April 28, 2014, 03:29:45 PM »
If the volume of load in a training week cycle is less than 20% of the total for one month, it can be regarded as small; if it is from 21-30%, it is considered medium; between 31-40%, it is considered large and greater than 40% is a maximum load.

Boris states that monotonous training loads, even more so the more frequently used, the faster the body gets used to them and the less effective they become for the development of the athlete. Thus, load variability is one of the most important principles in the construction of the training process. Variability is the basis for stable progress.

Table 10 shows that the relative weekly load volumes vary between small, medium, large and maximum loads. It should be noted that these options are not the only load distribution possibilities. There are other options, especially in the preparatory months.

Options with one digit (1, 2, 3, etc.) indicate that the maximum volume of load falls on that week of the month. If two numbers indicate the option, the first digit indicates the week with a highest volume; the second digit indicates the week with a comparable but slightly reduced volume.

When A.V. Cherniak analyzed training diaries of qualified weightlifters (Master of Sport, Master of Sport International Class and Honored Master of Sport), he found that the most common schemes during the competition period were: 1, 2, 1-3, 3-1, with deloading the last week before competition.

Table  10
Variants For Weekly Load Distribution In A Preparatory Mesocycle (B. Sheiko, 2011)

Variants      % Monthly Volume Number of Lifts
1st Week2nd    3rd    4th         1st Week2nd    3rd     4th     TOTAL
146% 20%22%12%138606636300
1-234%30%24%12%1191058442350
1-336%16%27%21%14464108 84400
1-435%22%14%29%158 9963130 450
222%38%25%15%11019012575500
2-320%34%30%16%11018716588 550
2-421%35%13%31%12621078186600
315%28%35%22%97182228143650
3-128%15%35%22%196105245154700
3-222%27%33%18%165203247135750
3-417%21%35%27%136 168280216800
418%26%12%44%153221102374850
4-215%28%22%35%135252198315900
4-322%15%28%35%2201502803501000

Table  11
Variants For Weekly Load Distribution In A Competition Mesocycle (B. Sheiko, 2011)
 
Variants      % Monthly Volume Number of Lifts
1st Week2nd    3rd    4th         1st Week2nd    3rd     4th     TOTAL
140%27%20%13%108 735435270
229%38%22%11%1011347738350
3-128%24%34%14%12010314760430
1-3  38%20%28%14%19010014070500

See Fig. 9 Diagram of possible load distributions in a competitive mesocycle

Application of the principle of variability is acceptable for athletes of any skill level in any sport. The above allocation scheme for weekly cycles is fully applicable to the various qualifications of powerlifters across weight categories.

The largest volume of load often falls on the first or second week of the month before the event. Rarely is a large volume of load observed in the third week.

Upon completion of the training week it is necessary to make a comparative analysis between what was planned and what was actually done. If there is a deviation from the plan, it is necessary to find an objective reason, which must be corrected for in the following week.




17
Universal Topics / General Training Overview - Daily Loading Part 2
« on: April 28, 2014, 03:17:02 PM »
Increasing the number of training days to four times a week is a big step forward in the direction of increased loads. A greater variation of loading can be planned with four workouts per week.

An example distribution of monthly load in microcycles with four workouts per week can be seen as follows (see Table 7).

Options with a sharp change in number of lifts from workout to workout are called “intermittent stressors”; options with a gradual increase or decrease of volume during three workouts or more are called “gradual stressors”.

Table  7
Options (1-4):  Preparatory Period Load Variants For 4 Workouts Per Microcycle

1st Option         2nd Option         3rd Option         4th Option         
Monday Medium Large LargeMedium
Tuesday RestRestRestRest
Wednesday   LargeMediumSmall Small
Thursday RestRestRestRest
Friday MediumLargeLargeLarge
Saturday Small Small Small Small
Sunday RestRestRestRest

See Fig. 5 Diagram of methods of distributing the load in microcycles with 4 workouts per week

In embodiments 1-4 the maximum load is scheduled in the second: two large loads with one medium and small training day (see Figure 5 and Table 7).                                                                                                 

Table  8
Options (5-8):  Preparatory Period Load Variants For 4 Workouts Per Microcycle

5th Option          6th Option          7th Option          8th Option         
Monday Medium MediumLarge Large
Tuesday RestRestRestRest
Wednesday    SmallMediumSmall Large
Thursday RestRestRestRest
Friday MediumSmallSmallSmall
Saturday Small Large Medium Medium
Sunday RestRestRestRest

In cases 5-8 the maximum load is planned in version 8: two large workouts followed by small and medium training days (Table 8 and Figure 6).

See Fig. 6 Diagram of ways (5-8) of distributing the load of microcycles with 4 workouts per week

Table 9
Loading Variance For 4 Workouts Per Microcycle During the Competition Period
 
6 Weeks         5 Weeks         4 Weeks         3 Weeks         2 Weeks         1 Week         
Monday LargeLargeMediumTestMediumSmall
Tuesday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest
Wednesday LargeSmallLargeMediumSmallSmall
Thursday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest
Friday SmallMediumMediumMediumMedium Rest
Saturday MediumSmallSmallSmallRest Comp.
Sunday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Comp.
*weeks countdown starts from the beginning of the competition

See Fig. 7 Method of distributing the load during the competition mesocycle

Just as in the planning with three workouts per week, a test in the competition exercises is scheduled for the 12th workout (3 weeks) preceding the event. During the second week prior to the event the scheduled training sessions reduces to 3 (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), with Saturday being a rest day. If an athlete competes on Friday, Boris recommends that one small workout, that is more like a warm-up, should take place on Tuesday with Wednesday and Thursday being rest days. If the athlete performs on Saturday, then the athlete trains on Monday with a small load and even less load on Wednesday with Thursday and Friday being rest days. If the athlete performs on Sunday (i.e. heavyweights), he also trains on Monday, Wednesday and has 3 days of rest.

See Fig. 8 Diagram of the method of distribution the load of microcycles with 4 workouts per week during the competition mesocycle

18
Universal Topics / General Training Overview - Daily Loading Part 1
« on: April 28, 2014, 02:59:05 PM »
Daily Loading Schemes

Load cases with two, three and four single workouts per week.

With two workouts per week the range of variation is not great.
Boris offers 2 options of training sessions in the week:

Option 1:
Monday     Tuesday     Wednesday     Thursday     Friday      Saturday      Sunday     
Workout      Rest      Rest      Workout      Rest      Rest      Rest     


Option 2:
Monday      Tuesday      Wednesday      Thursday      Friday      Saturday      Sunday     
Rest      Workout      Rest      Rest      Workout      Rest      Rest     

When planning the training sessions Boris makes use of variability, i.e. alternating small, medium and large loads which is clearly seen in Tables 1 and 2.
                                                                                 
Table 1
Options (1-4):  Preparatory Period Load Variants For 2 Workouts Per Microcycle

1st Option      2nd Option       3rd Option       4th Option       
Monday Large Medium Small Small
Tuesday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Wednesday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Thursday Small Medium Large Medium
Friday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Saturday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Sunday Rest Rest Rest Rest

Table 2
Options (5-8):  Preparatory Period Load Variants For 2 Workouts Per Microcycle

5th Option       6th Option       7th Option       8th Option       
Monday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Tuesday Medium Large Medium Small
Wednesday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Thursday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Friday Small Large Large Small
Saturday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Sunday Rest Rest Rest Rest
                                                                                               
See Fig.1 Diagram of methods of distributing load for a microcycle with two workouts per week

With three workouts per week load variability can increase beyond that of two workouts per microcycle, but not as great as with 4 workouts per microcycle. But even with three we can achieve diversity and great effect.

Boris offers the two most acceptable options:

Option 1:
Monday     Tuesday     Wednesday     Thursday     Friday      Saturday      Sunday     
Workout      Rest      Workout      Rest      Workout      Rest      Rest     


Option 2:
Monday      Tuesday      Wednesday      Thursday      Friday      Saturday      Sunday     
Rest      Workout      Rest      Workout      Rest      Workout      Rest     

For example:

Table 3
Options (1-4):  Preparatory Period Load Variants For 3 Workouts Per Microcycle

1st Option      2nd Option       3rd Option       4th Option       
Monday Small MediumMediumSmall
Tuesday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Wednesday LargeLargeSmallLarge
Thursday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Friday SmallMediumLargeMedium
Saturday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Sunday Rest Rest Rest Rest

The largest microcycle workload is scheduled in the second microcycle (see Table 3). Such a distribution is possible in the second month of training beginners and the first month of training qualified athletes when they learn and improve their technique in the competitive exercises with lower intensity (50 - 70%), with the number of repetitions from 4 to 6 in a set.

Table 4
Options (5-8):  Preparatory Period Load Variants For 3 Workouts Per Microcycle

5th Option       6th Option       7th Option       8th Option       
Monday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Tuesday LargeLargeMediumLarge
Wednesday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Thursday SmallMediumSmallSmall
Friday Rest Rest Rest Rest
Saturday MediumLargeMediumLarge
Sunday Rest Rest Rest Rest

In the second embodiment, microcycle load is much higher than the first. Load peaks in the sixth microcycle. In the fifth and seventh microcycles the load is average, and increases again at the eighth (see Table 5 and Figure 2).

See Fig. 2 Diagram of methods of distributing the load for microcycles with three workouts per week

Any plan, even one perfectly planned for a group of athletes written by a highly accomplished coach needs to be adjusted during training sessions. This is explained by the fact that the athletes find themselves with different anatomical and physiological realities, and therefore they will have different reactions to load, different recoverability between them, and miscellaneous technique errors in the execution of competitive exercises. Therefore, the coach should give additional exercises to eliminate the technical errors that occur during training.

Unlike many powerlifting professionals in the USA (Jeff Wright, Rick Weil, Bill Kazmaier, Ted Arcidi, Michael Simpson, John Kuc, etc.), UK, Canada, and Australia, Russia has many followers of the cycling method described above (Surowiecki A., Zavyalov I., Verkhoshansky Y., etc.) while many other countries, utilize cyclic load planning with their athletes lifting maximum weights even in the first (competitive period) weeks. For example in the program by John Kuc:

 
2nd Week Prior to Competition
1st day benching
%RM      Reps      Sets
45.0      10      1
58.3      8      1
73.3      6      1
85      3      1
96.7      1      1
101.7   1      1
103.3   1      1
95.0      3      1

2nd day benching
%RM      Reps      Sets
45.0      10      1
58.3      8      1
73.3      6      1
85      3      1
96.7      1      1
101.7   1      1
95      3      1
 

1 Week Before Competition
Day 1 (Tuesday)
Bench press
%RM      Reps      Sets
45.0      10      1
58.3      8      1
73.3      4      1
85      2      1
96.7      1      1
101.7   1      1

Competition on Saturday.

Your attempts at competition must be within:
93.3 - 95%; 100 - 103.3%; 106.7 - 110%, depending on the progress you have made in the program.

Boris believes that an athlete following such a training plan will not be able to recover and perform successfully in competition. Boris instead plans a reduction in volume and intensity prior to competition (see Table 6).

Table 5
Loading Variance For 3 Workouts Per Microcycle During the Competition Period
                    6 Weeks        5 Weeks         4 Weeks         3 Weeks         2 Weeks         1 Week         
Monday LargeSmallMediumTest MediumSmall
Tuesday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest
Wednesday SmallMediumLargeSmallSmallSmall
Thursday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest
Friday MediumLargeSmallLargeMedium Rest
Saturday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest
Sunday Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Comp.
*weeks countdown starts from the beginning of the competition

A large load is scheduled for Monday of the first week after two days of rest. The last large load scheduled is in the fourth week. In the third week, 17 - 20 days before the event is scheduled, a test of performance in all three movements should take place. The test can be scheduled in one day of training (i.e. squats, bench press, and deadlift) or two training days (i.e. the first day: squats and bench press, the second day - deadlift). The test allows the coach to see what condition the athlete comes to competition in and allows the coach to determine the initial weights during the competition and to choose tactical approaches to the bar (i.e. how to select weights for the three competitive approaches).

See Fig. 3 Diagram of the distribution of load during a competition mesocycle

See Fig. 4 Distribution of number of lifts during the competition mesocycle (6 weeks out from competition)

Through a reduction in volume and intensity Boris initiates super-compensation in the athlete, which promotes the achievement of high competition results.

19
Universal Topics / General Training Overview - Yearly Loading
« on: April 28, 2014, 02:25:51 PM »
Training Cycles

To ensure the growth of sports performance, it is necessary to continuously develop the functionality of the athlete’s body. This is achieved by systematically increasing load through careful planning.

In accordance with the objective of continuous improvement, load planning in powerlifting training should include the following aims:

- Improving overall physical development
- Further development of special physical qualities
- Further improvement of technical and tactical abilities

Sports’ training is constructed in the form of cycles of different duration. In 1964, L.P. Matveev illustrated the general structure of a long-term training process at the micro (small), meso (middle), macro (large) cycle(s) of training.

Microcycle
A microcycle is a series of workouts carried out over several days and which provides a complete solution to the task of a particular training stage. Typically, the microcycle duration is one week.

The number of training sessions in microcycle can range from 2 to 10-12 sessions. Several factors are taken into consideration in the construction of a microcycle. Fatigue management and the recovery process are of particular concern.

Mesocycle
A mesocycle on average lasts from two to six weeks and includes a number of relatively complete microcycles. The construction of the training process at the mesocycle level allows you to organize training in accordance with the main task of the period or phase of training, to ensure optimum dynamics between training and competitive pressures, and employs suitable combinations of various means and methods of training. (J.K. Colds, 2007)

Macrocycle
A macrocycle is an organized grouping of mesocycles associated with the development, stabilization and temporary loss of sporting form.  The macrocycle is thus divided into three periods: preparatory, competitive and transition. The duration of a macrocycle can range from 3-4 months to multi-year plans (e.g. 4 year Olympic cycles).

The preparatory period is aimed at developing the sporting form and creating a solid foundation of preparation (general and special) for the main event and various other aspects of preparedness. During this period there is an increase in strength, speed, flexibility, agility, and is in general versatile physical training. It is characterized by the highest volume of training load and a gradual increase in the intensity of competition exercises.

The increase in the volume of the load should go in waves, i.e. months of heavy load should alternate with months of reduced load. A gradual increase in the load is only suitable for beginners and low-level athletes. It is also suitable for qualified athletes after a long transition period, at the beginning of a new cycle.

This period can be divided into two stages: general physical preparation and special physical preparation.

The competitive period is characterized by a stabilization of sporting form and further improvement in various aspects of preparedness. This period also provides integrated training and is a direct preparation for the competition itself.

The main objective of the competition period is the implementation of high-level training. Work in this period is characterized by a low volume and high intensity. The number of lifts is reduced by 20-40% as compared to the preparatory period with the reduction depending on the athlete's weight. The heavier the athlete, the greater the reduction.

The transition period aims to restore physical and mental capacity after high level training and competitive pressures to prepare for the next macrocycle at a higher level. This period forms the bridge between sports training cycles. Boris notes that he has always been against long transition periods.

Yearly Planning

Suppose an athlete plans on entering five important competitions (at the end of months 3, 5, 6, 9 and 11) and three of which (at the end of months 3, 5 and 9) are for him, the most important.

Cycle         Months
1         1-3
2         4-6
3         7-9
4         10-11

Further suppose that the optimal numbers of lifts per month for this athlete during the preparatory and competition periods are 1,500 and 1,050, respectively. The yearly schedule may then look like the following:

Month      Lifts
1         1,350 (preparatory, after a training lay-off)
2         1,500 (preparatory)
3         1,050 (competition)
4         1,430 (preparatory, slight reduction)*
5         1,000 (competition)
6         860    (competition)
7         1,150 (preparatory)**
8         1,500 (preparatory)
9         1,050 (competition)
10         1,150 (preparatory)***
11         770    (competition)
12         640    (active rest, GPP)

Average Number of Lifts Per Month = 1,120

* Looking forward, two competition months at higher intensity
** Recuperation before loading and competition
*** Definite background of fatigue, reduced loading is appropriate


The month’s plan is distributed non-uniformly: weeks with a large load should be alternated with weeks with small and medium loads.

Large loading has the greatest affect on the trainee and it creates the conditions for the further increases in competition results. Moderate loading maintains the level of trainability. Small loads are employed for active restoration and contribute to super-compensation, thereby creating the highest level of functional possibility.  Variability is an essential component of maintaining sensitivity toward the training stimulus. Thus, only a sequence of loading and rest can contribute to a continuous increase in results.

Two-time Olympic champion in weightlifting, doctor of medical science Professor A. Vorobyov (1989) states that using any load with low intensity doesn't help him to achieve high results. High intensity in training is extremely important. It is an axiom.

20
Universal Topics / General Training Overview - Intensity
« on: April 28, 2014, 02:23:40 PM »
Relative Intensity

The relative intensity (RI) is the percentage of the average weight of the bar compared to the one repetition maximum (1RM) of an exercise. This parameter characterizes the relative degree of stress the body experiences when performing exercises, regardless of body weight, skill, and strength of the athlete.

Boris analyzed the training load of world champions (n=38) from 1993 to 2013 and found that the greatest increase in strength was achieved with an average relative intensity of 69.5 - 72%. However, this does not mean that all work should be done at 70% of maximum. In training sessions, an athlete trains with weights in the range of 50-90%.

There are several ways to achieve an average intensity in this range. For example:

Version 1

%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      4      1
70      3      1
80      3      2
90      2      3

Lifts = 24
Relative Intensity = 71.5%

Version 2

%RM      Reps      Sets
55      5      1
65      4      1
75      3      1
85      2      4

Lifts = 20
Relative Intensity = 72.0%

Version 3

%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      4      1
70      3      1
80      3      5

Lifts = 27
Relative Intensity = 70.4%

Version 4

%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      5      1
70      5      1
75      4      5

Lifts = 35
Relative Intensity = 68.6%

Version 5

%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      4      1
70      3      1
80      3      2
85      2      3
80      3      2

Lifts = 30
Relative Intensity = 72.3%
 
When planning the load in the preparatory period for elite athletes Boris uses stressful loads once every 10 - 14 days:

Squats

Option 1: Pyramid Method
%RM      Reps            Sets
50       5            1
60      5            1
70      3,5,7,9,8,6,4*       1,1,1,1,1,1,1

*athlete does 3 reps, rests, then 5 reps, 7 and so on
   
Lifts = 52
Relative intensity = 67.1%

Option 2: Ragged Method
%RM      Reps            Sets
50      5            1
60      5            1
70      3,7,5,8,4,9,6      1,1,1,1,1,1,1

Lifts = 52
Relative intensity = 67.1%

In the first and second embodiments, both have the same number of lifts and the same relative intensity. The difference is in the ordering of the sets with 70% of 1RM.

Athletes who performed these two methods noted that the “Ragged Method" was better tolerated than the “Pyramid Method”.

Mid-level athletes perform squats using the preceding methods with a weight of 65% of 1RM.

Bench Press

Option 1: Average Pyramid
%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      5      1
70      4      1
75      3      1
80      2      2
85      1      2
75      3      1
65      5      1
55      7      1

Lifts = 38
Relative intensity = 65.3%

Option 2: Mega Pyramid
%RM      Reps      Sets
50      7      1
60      6      1
70      5      1
75      4      1
80      3      1
85      2      2
80      3      1
75      4      1
70      5      1
65      6      1
60      7      1
55      8      1
50      9      1

Lifts  = 71
Relative intensity = 63.8%

Option 3:
%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      4      1
70      3      1
80      3      2
85      2      3
80      2      3

Lifts = 30
Relative intensity = 72.3%

Option 4:
%RM      Reps      Sets
50      6      1
60      5      1
70      4      1
80      3      2
85      2      2
80      3      1
75      4      1
65      5      1
55      6      1

Lifts = 43
Relative intensity = 67.3%


Option 5: Short, Intense Pyramid
%RM      Reps      Sets
50      5      1
60      4      1
70      3      1
80      3      1
85      2      2
90      1      2
85      2      2

Lifts = 25
Relative intensity = 72.0%

Intensity Zones

Maximum strength increases are achieved with loads between 91-100%. Little skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurs and strength growth is primarily the result of the consolidation of the neuromuscular system. The amount of strength improvement decreases with decreasing intensity: however, the growth of muscle mass increases. Note: A discussion of the mechanisms here is outside the scope of this post.

So the training of beginners should promote, first and foremost, an increase in muscle mass. This is because the weight and height data do not correspond with the weight class they are in. For example, at 173cm, a 16-17 year old beginner might weigh 75kg or less. At this height he should be in the 83-93kg weight class. This is one reason why beginners should emphasize lower intensity zones. It will also help them reduce the risk of injury and improve learning the technique of the competitive exercises.

At a height of 173cm, the 16-17 year old beginner at 75kg has a weight-height ratio of 434g/cm (versus 520g/cm for a 90kg lifter at the same height); consequently, the muscle mass per centimeter will be less than needed. This is the reason why the lifter should switch to “his” weight class.

Optimal Heights and Weights

Height     Weight     Height     Weight     
145+/-3cm52kg168+/-2cm82.5kg
149+/-3cm56kg171+/-2cm90kg
155+/-2.5cm60kg174.5+/-2cm100kg
160+/-2cm67.5kg177.5+/-2cm110kg
164+/-2cm75kg186+/-6cm110+kg
*Target weights should be at the top of a weight class

All things being equal (the intensity of loading, the work scheme, etc.), an increase in the volume of loading contributes to an increase in a lifter’s muscle mass. Therefore, the lifter’s height/weight data is an important factor for planning the loading. When it is necessary to increase muscle mass the volume of loading is at a maximum. As body weight rises to near the limit of his weight class a greater emphasis is placed on higher intensity zones.

21
The following is the method Boris uses to get his absolute beginner students started off right. It is the product of decades worth of refinement. Of primary importance are technique development and increases of general athletic ability and work capacity. Although this program comes from a powerlifting specialist, due to its general nature it's really applicable to anyone starting off in the weight room. Systematically building the body and using objective measures of progress is just a recipe for success. 

One thing you'll notice is that sets are never take to failure.

Let's hear Pavel Tsatsouline explain it:

"

Once you appreciate that strength training - as opposed to bodybuilding is a form of skill practice, designing an effective customized strength program becomes just a matter of following the fundamental principles of motor learning. There are three. 



First, practice must be specific. Do not rep out with a light weight when you are training for a heavy single. 



The second rule is an extension of the first one. Practice fresh and stop before your skill starts deteriorating. That means ending your practice before you start dragging your tail - and saying no to training to failure. 



Third, practice as frequently as possible while observing the first two rules. 

Does it make sense for a tennis player to go to the court once a week and smash balls until his arm falls off? No, you go the court daily, ideally more than once a day, and serve until you begin to lose it. 

Why not do the same for you iron game? 



These principles exactly explain why SHEIKO is so effective. A lot of high level Russian lifters will train as many as 10 times a week, splitting workouts between squat/bench, and bench/deadlift. I've seen Andrey Belyaev's training programs, and they're nuts, and he never goes over 85%, generally he stays in the 80% range. 

These principles are much, much more important than diet, supplements, steroids or whatever."

Here Boris explains his philosophy on training beginners:

"When training novices the group method is used. The group method of training is a very practical way of studying exercise technique. All students in the group repeat the shown exercise one after another. When the trainer identifies an error in the execution of the exercise, the other trainees present try not to repeat this error. Thus they facilitate the process of instruction and accelerate the formation of habits.

For the training of novices it is necessary to use variations of the classical exercises that are similar in coordination requirements but considerably simpler. For example, sometimes when teaching the squat and the student is instructed in the proper back position, the student fails to attain proper depth.  In such cases it is useful to employ the box squat adjusted to the proper height. The student simply squats down to the box while holding the proper back position and immediately recovers. Thus proper depth is achieved.

In the case of learning to arch the lower back for the bench press the student lays on top of a foam roll. Gradually, over the course of a month the student becomes accustomed to assuming the necessary body position.  The same concerns the deadlift. According to our observations it is easier to learn the correct mechanics if the deadlift begins from blocks so that the bar is just above the knees. Over the course of several weeks the blocks are lowered until the initial barbell position begins off of the floor.  In combination with kettle ball squats, which force the student to maintain a straight back, the fulfillment of learning the deadlift is attained considerably more rapidly.

Thus novices master one method of fulfilling the exercise then another.

Another concern in training novices is they frequently overestimate their possibilities, with a strong sense of rivalry present between them. In each training session they try to lift maximum weights which can lead to injury and poor technique development. One very important way of mitigating these issues is to group the novices so that they are all of very similar ability. This way they do not attempt to replicate what another student has done  which may be beyond their current ability.

The trainee must remember that during the study of classical exercise technique, the principle value is not the weight of the bar, but rather the number of repetitions. When learning technique it is not possible to allow large stresses. Learning technique is best done with moderate weights.  Then the weight on the bar increases proportionally to mastery of the exercise and improvement of the general physical state of the student.  Both strong and weak stimuli are not optimal for the formation of conditioned reflexes. Only moderate stresses can ensure the successful acquisition of effective movement patterns of the classical exercises and contribute best towards physical development, which are necessary for lifting maximum weights.

In the end of the month we carry out competitions among the novices to determine the best classical exercise technique, not the amount of weight lifted. These competitions help the trainer to reveal the effectiveness of instruction as revealed by the errors of execution of exercise technique. This makes it possible to introduce corrections in the instruction procedure and to additionally include exercises which influence the correction of errors.

Thus, the primary objective for the novices is to obtain proper classical exercise technique and also the improvement of the physical condition.

The volume of load is expressed as the number of lifts (N.L.). We consider that this is sufficient at this stage. In connection with the fact that it is very difficult to determine the true limit of the novice these plans are written in kilograms from the minimum weight which is taken to be X. The initial weight X should be a weight that could be done for 10 moderately easy reps.  Weight for additional exercises should be such that 3-4 additional reps could be performed at the completion of the set."

Just a quite note on that: Since the development of a novice is quite rapid, the weight X suitable for one workout may no longer be suitable in the following workouts. In practice this means warming up to a set of 10 moderately easy reps and whatever weight that may be for the day, let it be X then take it from there. The same goes for a set labeled only 6 reps x 4 sets. These are considered additional exercises and so here you'd warm up to a set of 6 (which could be taken 3-4 reps further) then use the same weight for an additional 3 sets of 6.

Boris continues:

"The first two weeks it is desirable to include only one of the classical exercises. The remaining exercises can be developmental derivatives of the classical exercises or for the development of general physical ability. In the initial stages, the importance of general physical training supersedes that of special exercise preparation. In time, further increases in work on the classical exercises then occurs.

Also it is desirable to focus attention on the detriments of dieting in young athletes. Any reduction in weight is negatively reflected in the health of the athlete, retards his/her general physical development and inhibits an increase in sport results. Therefore, the artificial reduction in weight of adolescents and youth, whose physical development is not yet completed, and which can lead to the disturbance of endocrine function and cardiovascular activity, is not advised."

With that, let's see the program.


Approximate group program for novices.


* learning grip means – learning kinds of grip and how to put fingers around the barbell and the allowed length between hands

Month1

Week 1
Day 1
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Learning grip in squat
3. Learning bar position on back in squat.
4. Shoulder press standing with dumbbells  (left and right arm moves simultaneously) 6reps x 4 sets
5. Jumps to length (from standing in place) 10 reps
Day 2
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Getting better (consolidate skills) with bar position on back in squat.
3. Learning walk out of the rack and putting the barbell on the back 3reps x 4sets
4. Side lateral raises standing with dumbbells  6 reps x 4 sets
5. Running 30 meters x 5 sets
Day 3
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Getting better (consolidate skills) in walk out of the rack and putting the barbell back 3reps x 4sets
3. Learning squat technique on to box  (box squat) 5reps x 5sets
4. Learning grip in bench press
5. Db press on the bench 6 reps x 4 sets
6. Jumps over box  5 reps x 4 sets

Recommendations on schedule: Mon-Wed-Fri or Tues-Thurs-Sat

Week 2
Day 1
1.  Warm-up, 15 minutes
2.  Getting better (consolidate skills) in box squat 5 reps x 5 sets
3.  Learning technique of bench press with middle grip  4 reps x 5 sets
4.  Flies on the bench with dumbbells 6 reps x 4 sets
5.  Side lateral raises standing with dumbbells 6 reps x 4 sets
6.  Jumps to length (from place) 10 reps
Day 2
1.  Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Getting better (consolidate skills) in bench press with middle grip   4 reps x 5 sets
3. Seated rowing 6 reps x 5 sets
4. Biceps with db alternating & standing (6+6) reps x 5 sets
5. Football (soccer) 30 minutes
Day 3
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Learning grip in deadlift 2 reps x 3 sets
3. Learning start position in deadlift 3 reps x 4 sets
4. Db press on the bench 6 reps x 4 sets
5. Jumps to box 4 reps x 4 sets

Week 3
Day 1
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Box squat (height of the box – a bit higher than knees) Xkg -5 reps x 1 set, X+5 kg – 5 reps x 4 sets
3. Shoulder press standing with db (alternately)  (5+5) x 4 sets
4.  Flies on the bench with dumbbells 8reps x 4 sets
5. Triple jump to length from place (with no running) 3reps x 5 sets
Day 2
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Getting better (consolidate skills) in bench press with middle grip X kg – 5 reps x 1 set, X+5kg 5reps x 4 sets
3. Pull-ups  6 reps x 4 sets
4.  Front raises with db (standing  or seated) 8 reps x 4 sets
5. Abs (lying on inclined bench)  8reps x 3 sets
Day  3
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2. Getting better (consolidate skills) in getting start position in deadlift 3reps x 4 sets
3.  Learning deadlift off boxes deadlift (start position – bar is at 5-7 cm above the knees)  Xkg – 5 reps x 2 sets, X+5kg 4 reps x 3 sets
4. Pull downs 6 reps x 4 sets
5. Shoulder press standing with db (alternately)  (5+5) x 4 sets
6. Football (soccer)

Week 4
Day 1
1. Warm-up, 15 minutes
2.  Box squat (height of box is level of knees) X – 4 reps x 1 set, X+5 kg 4 reps x 1 set, X+10 kg 5 reps x 4 sets
3.  Db press on bench 6 reps x 5 sets
4. Flies on the bench with dumbbells, 8 reps x 4 sets
5. Side lateral raises standing 6 reps x 4 sets
Day 2
1. Warm up 15 minutes.
2. Bench press with middle grip X-5 reps x 1 set,  X+5 kg 4 reps x 1 set, X+10 kg 3 reps x 4 sets
3. Seated rowing 6 reps x 4 sets
4. French press 8 reps x 4 sets
5. Abs (raising of legs when hanging) 6 reps x 4 sets
Day 3
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Deadlift off boxes (start position at 5-7 cm above the knees) X – 4 reps x 1 set, X+5 4 reps x 1 set, X+10 kg 3 reps x 4 sets,
3. Shoulder press inclined (bench at 45 degrees), X kg– 3 reps x 2 set, X+5 kg 3 reps x 3 sets
4. Front raises with db standing 6 reps x 4 sets
5.  Goodmornings seated 4 reps x 4 sets
6. Running 30 meters x 5 reps


Month 2

Week 1
Day 1
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Box squat (knee level) X – 4 reps x 1 set, X+5 4 reps x 1 set, X+10 kg 5 reps x 4 sets
3. Db press 6 reps x 5 sets
4. Pull downs 6 reps x 4 sets
5. Abs (raisin legs when hanging) 8 reps x 4 sets
6. Jumps on box 5 reps x 4 sets
Day 2
1. Warm-up  15 minutes
2. Bench press with middle grip  X -5 reps x 1 set, X+5 reps x 4 sets
3. Flies with dumbbells 8 reps x 4 sets
4. Biceps with db standing (alternated) (5+5) x 4 sets
5. Goodmornings seated 4 reps x 4 sets
Day 3
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Deadlift off boxes (start position, bar is 5 cm below the knees) X – 4 reps x 1 set, X+5 kg 4 reps x 1 set, X+10 kg 3 reps x 4 sets
3. Shoulders press with db seated (alternated) (6+6) reps x 4 sets
4. French press lying 6 reps x 4 sets
5. Lateral side arms raises standing 6reps x 4 sets

Week 2
Day 1
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Squat Xkg  5reps x 1 set, X+5 kg 5reps x 1set, X+10 kg 4reps x 4sets
3. Shoulders press off the chest seated 4reps x 5sets
4. Biceps curls seated 6reps x 4sets
5. Pull downs (behind the neck ) 6reps x 5sets
6. Jump to distance (without running, from place) 10 reps
Day 2
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Bench press with middle grip Xkg 4 reps x 1 set, X+5 kg 4reps x1set, X+10 kg 3reps x 4sets
3. Db flies flat bench, 8reps x 4 sets
4. Biceps curls with db standing simultaneously 8reps x 4 sets
5. Front raises with db standing 6reps x 5sets
6. Goodmorning 5reps x 4sets
Day 3
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Deadlift off boxes (bar is at 5cm below knees) X+5kg 4 reps x 1set, X+10 kg 4reps x 1set, X+15kg 4 reps x 4sets
3. Shoulders press inclined (45 degrees) 3reps x 5sets
4. Seated rowing 6reps x 5sets
5. French press lying 6reps x 4sets
6. Abs (legs raises, lying) 8 reps x 4sets

Week 3
Day  1
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2.  Squat X+5 kg, 4reps x 1set,  X+10 kg 4reps x 1set, X+15 kg 3reps x 4sets
3.  Db press, 6reps x 5sets
4. Lateral side raises standing 6reps x 4sets
5.  Biceps curls standing (alternated) (6+6)reps x 4sets
6. Jump on to box 5reps x 5sets
Day 2
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Bench press with competition grip, Xkg 4 reps x 1set, X+5kg 3 reps x 1set,  X+10 kg 3reps x 4sets,
3. Db flies 8reps x 4sets
4. French press 8reps x 4sets
5. Hanging straight legs raises 8reps x 4sets
Day 3.
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Deadlift up to knees  X kg 3reps x 1set, X+5kg 3 reps x 4sets
3. Shoulders press inclined (45 degrees) 3reps x 5sets
4. Seated rowing  6reps x 5sets
5. Biceps curls with db simultaneously standing 8reps x 5set
6. Football 30 minutes

Week 4
Day 1
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2.  Squat X+5 kg, 6reps x 1set,  X+10 kg 4reps x 4sets
3. Shoulders press with dumbbells (alternated) seated (5+5)reps x 5sets
4. Front raises with db standing 6reps x 4sets
5. Lying leg raises 8reps x 4sets
6. Triple jumps for distance (without running, from place) 3reps x 5sets
Day 2
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Bench press with competition grip, X+5kg  4 reps x 1set, X+10kg 4 reps x 4sets
3. Db flies 8reps x 4sets
4.  Biceps with db standing (alternated) (6+6)reps x 5sets
5. Goodmorning 5reps x 5sets
Day 3
1. Warm-up 15 minutes
2. Deadlift Xkg 4reps x 1set, X+5kg 4 reps x 1 set, X+10 kg 4 reps x 4 sets
3. Shoulders press inclined (45 degrees) 3 reps x 5sets
4. Seated rowing 6reps x 5sets
5. Football 30 minutes

22
Universal Topics / Russian Sports Classification System
« on: April 06, 2014, 10:03:25 AM »
As of the 1970s, the following ranks classify athletes of the USSR (listed in descending order of value):

Merited Master of Sport of the USSR, (Russian: заслуженный мастер спорта СССР, abbreviated as "ЗМС", sometimes translated as Honoured Master of Sport of the USSR), equates to international champion who has made valuable contributions to the sport

Master of Sport of the USSR, International Class (Russian: мастер спорта СССР международного класса; abbreviated as "МСМК"), equates to international champion

Master of Sport of the USSR (Russian: мастер спорта СССР; abbreviated as "МС"), equates to national champion

Candidate for Master of Sport of the USSR (Russian: кандидат в мастера спорта СССР; abbreviated as "КМС"), equates to nationally ranked player

First-Class Sportsman (Russian: спортсмен 1-го разряда), equates to regional champion

Second-Class Sportsman (Russian: спортсмен 2-го разряда), equates to state champion

Third-Class Sportsman (Russian: спортсмен 3-го разряда), equates to city champion

First-Class Junior Sportsman (Russian: спортсмен 1-го юношеского разряда)

Second-Class Junior Sportsman (Russian: спортсмен 2-го юношеского разряда)

Third-Class Junior Sportsman (Russian: спортсмен 3-го юношеского разряда)

Each of these titles was awarded only for results on the official competitions.

You can find your current equipped classification in the chart below. It says:

Powerlifting (three lifts)
National Unified Sports Classification
Valid between 2014-2017
Approved by order of the Ministry of Sport #715
September 6, 2013



Edit: For raw lifters the following tables are from Ukraine.












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